Time: 1 hour 15 minutes
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
- Answer all the questions.
- You can change your answers at any time during the test.
INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
- There are 52 questions in this test.
- Each question in Parts 1, 2, 3 and 7 carries one mark.
- Each question in Part 4 carries up to two marks.
- Each question in Parts 5 and 6 carries two marks.
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For questions 1-8, read the text and choose the correct answer for each gap. Click on a gap and a choice of words will appear. Then choose the correct answer.
- A Fun Way to Travel
Staying in a hostel is an experience that everyone should have at least once. While they may not be the most comfortable you can find, they have the advantage of being convenient. Hostels can be found in countries all over the world. Typically they are inexpensive, and they are a great way to meet people. Your stay will be , and you're to have fun as well.
Most hostels offer two types of rooms. A shared room is a good if you don't mind sleeping with strangers, and if noise doesn't bother you. Alternately, for greater you can arrange for an individual room. Keep in mind that this option will probably be more costly. Try to book a hostel that breakfast, because this will help you to save money. You should also check whether your hostel offers guided tours. Such outings are an excellent way to helpful tips and get to know the place you're visiting.
Read the text. Think of the word which best fits each gap. Write the correct word in each gap (9 – 16).
- Cold Soup
To some people, the notion of cold soup can seem strange. Soup is often of as hearty and warming; the kind of food you should make when temperatures drop and winter sets in. reality, many types of cold soups are popular around the world. These recipes are usually refreshing and are perfect for hot weather.
Of the many cold soups you can make, gazpacho is probably the most famous. A tasty dish southern Spain, gazpacho is made mixing tomato, pepper and onion. Some recipes call for garlic, but this is not required. Tarator, is a cold soup from Bulgaria, is also delicious. To prepare it, you need is cucumber, yoghurt and dill. You're bound to enjoy this subtle blend of flavours.
Cold soups are normally easy to make, and also to be healthy. If you need a simple starter to with your next meal, think about putting one together. It is easy to find cold soup recipes on the Internet or in cookbooks.
Read the text. For questions 17 – 24, use the word on the right to form a word that fits in the gap. For each question, write your answer in the gap.
Dive In! Keyword List If you're looking for an easy way to get in shape, you should consider swimming. The sport is something that everyone can enjoy, regardless of . Not only is swimming fun, but it also has many health benefits. According to sports scientists, people who swim have better overall than people who don't. This is because swimming helps to build endurance and muscle strength. It is also good for your heart and lungs.
Swimming is suitable for people of all ages because, other sports, it does not strain your body excessively. This means that if you start to swim when you're young, you will be able to enjoy swimming throughout your life. Meanwhile, people who are recovering from can also benefit from swimming.
Most cities have public swimming pools, which are normally . Alternately, if you live near a lake or pond, swimming outdoors may be an for you. If you're a , you might want to sign up for classes. However, this is normally easy to do.
For questions 25 – 30, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.
- 25 The secretary postponed the meeting until the following week.
The meeting secretary until the following week.26 She has no difficulty in speaking her mind.
She doesn’t her mind.27 He didn’t expect to arrive home so quickly.
He did home so quickly.28 The price of a return ticket is double the price of a single one.
The price of a return ticket is the price of a single one.29 He’s so hungry he could eat two dinners.
He’s two dinners.30 “How many times do I have to tell you not to walk across the grass?” said his Dad.
Jamie dad for walking across the grass.
You are going to read an article about conflict resolution strategies. For each question 31 – 36, choose the correct answer.
How Not to Argue
Few people enjoy arguing, and most of us are prepared to do just about anything to avoid a quarrel. This makes sense, for arguments are never pleasant. They sap us of our energy, leaving us drained. If you are a sensitive person, a row may leave you feeling shaken for days. Going about your day-to-day tasks can be hard in such a state, and can even affect your health. Meanwhile, after heated arguments, reconciliation can be difficult to achieve. Thus, most people will agree that arguments are highly undesirable. The question remains, though, of how best to avoid conflict.
According to psychologist Gemma Bates, many people believe that disputes are inevitable. "Most of my clients claim that, once a conversation has reached a certain point, there is no going back. They believe they have no control over whether an argument will happen." When she realised that her clients felt this way, Bates began looking into conflict resolution strategies. "If people feel that arguments can't be avoided, they won't even try to stop them," Bates explains. "I saw that this belief was damaging my clients' relationships, so I decided to look for practical tips they could use in difficult situations."
Research suggests that a few simple steps are all it takes to stop a row. Amazingly, many of these tactics are simple to put into practice. Of the methods Bates studied, three in particular caught her attention. She sums up her findings with the motto "Be open, be present, and be kind." The framework underlying this catchphrase has already helped many of her clients. In the future, it is bound to help other people, too.
In tense situations, people's body language tends to reflect the emotions they are feeling. For example, they may stand with their arms crossed over their chest, or they might frown. In the worst of cases, they may refuse to make eye contact, and staring into space or looking at the floor. These gestures come across as hostile, even if the person making them has not actually decided to appear negative. When Bates talks about "openness," therefore, she refers not to being open-minded, but to communicating with your body that you are willing to talk.
The notion of being "present" is just as logical. For Bates, the word means two things. On the one hand, she believes people must fully commit themselves to the other person when a tough situation comes up. That means, for example, putting down your phone, stopping what you're doing, and paying close attention. "Presentness" also means forgetting about past conflicts and focusing on the current moment. "It doesn't help anyone to rehash disputes from five years back," Bates says.
Lastly, Bates urges people to treat each other with kindness. Rudeness and insensitivity should be avoided at all costs. In Bates's view, only by building a foundation of respect will it be possible for people to move forward with their relationship. Bates also reminds people, though, that if someone you tend to argue with repeatedly ignores this principle, it may be a sign that the relationship is not healthy. In these types of cases, she recommends that people step away.
In the current world, where people are constantly rushing from place to place, the risk for arguments is higher than ever. Bates's research is a helpful reminder of the need to make time for the conversations that matter. "Arguments can happen at work, in school, at home, or even between strangers! It's important for people to know how to manage them." Bates goes on to explain that, "My goal is for people to live happier lives. Hopefully my three-point framework will help to achieve this."
31. Which sentence best describes the point being made in paragraph 1?
32. What motivated Bates to research conflict resolution strategies?
33. Which of the following gestures is NOT listed as an example of negative body language?
34. What is the meaning of "rehash" in paragraph 5?
35. What advice does Bates give in paragraph 6?
36. Why does the author of the article believe that "the risk for arguments is higher than ever"?
You are going to read a blog post about a type of business called a juice bar. Six sentences have been removed from the article. For questions 37 – 42, choose the correct sentence and move it into the gap. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
Fun, Fresh and Flavourful
In recent years, a new type of business has appeared in many areas. When you walk through your local shopping district, you may even pass two or three of these popular establishments. They can usually be identified by their shiny counters, behind which gleam an array of fruits and vegetables. Of course, the type of business we are referring to is none other than a juice bar.
You have probably visited a juice bar yourself. However, for readers who haven’t heard of this trend, a brief explanation may be necessary. The concept behind a juice bar is straightforward. Indeed, it might be their simplicity that has made them such a success. A juice bar is a business that focuses solely on fresh fruit juices and smoothies. Carrot and orange is a classic no-frills recipe. At the opposite end of the spectrum, it is possible to savour drinks with a much wider range of ingredients. For instance, you can order beverages made with spinach, beetroot, or even courgette.
“I stop off for a fresh fruit juice every day on my way to work,” says Hannah Lawrence. “For a long time I was hooked on a tangy cranberry recipe, but recently I decided to branch out. Now I try a new juice at least once per week.” Hannah’s friend, John Haynes, agrees. “ I tend to go for drinks with ginger, because they help me to wake up in the morning.”
Business analyst Jessica Sanders has been studying juice bars for several years. “Millennials are very concerned about nutrition,” Ms. Sanders explains. “Drinking fruit juice on a regular basis is an easy way to improve your diet.” Yet her research has shown that people’s desire for a healthy lifestyle is not the only factor at work. Instead, it seems that economic changes over the last few decades have played a role in juice bars’ success. “We live in a world where we are always on the go. Juice bars allow us to get up and out quickly, without having to worry about how we will get our energy.”
It is hard to pinpoint when the first juice bar opened, but it is generally agreed that these shops really took off in the 1990s. At first, the market was dominated by large chains. Then, when it became clear that juice bars were a good business model, small independent stores began to open as well. This is because juice bars are easy to set up. In terms of equipment, all you need is a blender. Meanwhile, a modest investment will buy more than enough produce to see you through your first month.
By some estimates, more than 10,000 juice bars are currently operating worldwide. In the future this number expected to grow, as people’s interest in fresh, local produce shows no sign of going away. Juice tastes best when it is made from local products, meaning that the industry’s carbon footprint is small. Thus, in addition to their health benefits and convenience, juice bars are also good for the planet.
If you’ve never visited a juice bar, now is as good a time as any. Once you’ve enjoyed one of their tasty beverages, you’ll wonder how you managed without these handy little shops.
- Going to my local juice bar is an important part of my routine.
- Today, these “mom and pop businesses” may be even more significant than big companies.
- During peak hours, thirsty patrons join long queues that snake through the stores and may even extend into the street.
- Furthermore, there is growing recognition that juice bars are environmentally friendly.
- In her view, two factors have led to their rise in popularity.
- On average these beverages cost about £3.50 per glass, although in some areas they may cost slightly more.
- You may select from simple or complex combinations of fruits and vegetables.
Read the students' descriptions of their experiences studying foreign languages. For questions 43 – 52, choose the correct section. The sections may be chosen more than once.
Foreign Language Learning
A. Hannah Barnes
I've wanted to learn Greek for as long as I can remember. Many people develop an interest in the language because of the myths they read as children. In my case, it was a summer holiday in the Greek islands that motivated me. Most public schools don't teach Greek, in my area at least, so my only option was to enrol in a private language school. It's not the cheapest hobby in the world, but I've been pleased with the experience so far. I have a great teacher, and there are only three other students in my class. I have to admit that the language is tougher than I was expecting. I've had to learn a new alphabet, although I was prepared for that. What I hadn't anticipated is the difficulty of the grammar. Even though it's only been a few months, I've already filled two notebooks with verb forms and other grammatical points.
B. Sylvia Miller
I travelled to Poland a lot as a child. My mother was born in a town near Gdansk, and still has a lot of family there. The culture, therefore, is very familiar to me. On the other hand, despite my background, I wasn't brought up speaking Polish. I'm often told that my parents should have raised me bilingual. When I hear that, I always think, easier said than done! As my parents speak to each other in English, that's the language I grew up using. I'd put off studying Polish for many years, partly because it has the reputation of being very difficult, and also because I just never had the time. However, recently I decided that I wanted to have a go at it. I've been able to find a lot of resources online, and a couple of family members have been helping me. I may not ever be totally fluent, but hopefully one day I'll achieve an intermediate level.
C. Annie Jeffries
This year, for the very first time, my school started running Chinese language classes for secondary school students. I suppose the directors finally realised the importance of the language on the world stage. When I found out I'd have the chance to study Chinese, I didn't think twice. None of my friends wanted to try out the classes, perhaps because the language is famously tough. In my case, I figured, why not have a go? In the future I might want to work in international business, or perhaps have a career in foreign affairs. The ability to speak Chinese could be useful in those professions. I love the classes so far, even though I have to study a lot and I'm sometimes overwhelmed by all of the characters I need to memorise. Next, I want to put what I've learned into practice, so I'm looking into travelling to China over the summer.
D. Beth Davidson
In my opinion, some people are naturally good at languages, whereas others find them difficult. You may disagree with this perspective, but it's what my personal experience has shown me. My school requires that students study at least two years of French. Many of my friends have breezed through these classes, and claim that they're very easy to pass. In my case, new grammar and vocabulary tend to be impossible to learn. Maybe it's because French sounds so different to English. Just making the sounds is an uphill battle! Even if I do manage to get through my exams, I usually forget what I've learned soon after. Because of all this, meeting my school's requirement has been very frustrating. It's a shame because I like French history and culture. If I were to visit France, I would like to be able to speak to the people there.
43. explains that the language is hard to pronounce
44. was initially too busy to devote time to the language
45. believes the language might help her find a job
46. has had a different experience compared to her friends
47. thought that the language would be easier to learn
48. did not learn when she was younger, in spite of her heritage
49. is glad she has been given the chance to study the language
50. decided to learn without signing up for a class
51. made a financial investment in order to pursue her interest
52. is not enthusiastic about the language she is studying