Time: 1 hour 15 minutes
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
- Answer all the questions.
- You can change your answers at any time during the test.
INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
- There are 52 questions in this test.
- Each question in Parts 1, 2, 3 and 7 carries one mark.
- Each question in Part 4 carries up to two marks.
- Each question in Parts 5 and 6 carries two marks.
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First, check your answers. If you have any questions, ask in the comments.
First, check your answers. If you have any questions, ask in the comments.
For questions 1-8, read the text and choose the correct answer for each gap. Click on a gap and a choice of words will appear. Then choose the correct answer.
The popularity of mountain biking as a sport has increased since the 1980s. In spite of what you might think, a mountain is not an essential ! The name simply refers to off-road cycling, using bikes with special adaptations. Mountain bikes are yet flexible, with small frames, flat handlebars and thick tyres. These allow riders greater control as they navigate the natural environment, from rocky paths to sandy banks. Although for most people mountain biking is just a hobby, it has also been an Olympic since 1996.
Mountain biking is sometimes as a dangerous sport that involves a period of training. In , that is not the case; even young children can take part as long as they wear a protective helmet. You should always carry water, snacks, tools and a first-aid kit, so if you run trouble you can make it to the nearest town. It’s a good idea for beginners to join group treks rather than go out alone, but once you’re comfortable, mountain biking can feel like the freedom.
Read the text. Think of the word which best fits each gap. Write the correct word in each gap (9 – 16).
Room to Let
I loved my job but I was working 50 hours per week, so I asked my boss if I could go part-time. I felt a huge sense relief when he agreed, but then instantly started to worry about money. I’d taken a 30% pay cut and I needed a way to make that loss of income, so I decided to let my spare room. I posted adverts five or six websites – and within an hour I received more than 200 responses!
I knew was a shortage of accommodation in this city, but I couldn’t believe the number of replies and wondered to choose the best flatmate. Should I give the room to the first person who contacted me, or should I interview potential candidate? The first option seemed the fairest so I called Nina, had answered my post in just four minutes, and she seemed charming. We’ve been living together for six months now and luckily everything has out well. But I’d advise others only to advertise on one or two websites!
Read the text. For questions 17 – 24, use the word on the right to form a word that fits in the gap. For each question, write your answer in the gap.
Public Speaking Keyword List How do you feel if you have to give a presentation? On a recent about common nightmares, 57% of people mentioned public speaking in their answers. In both the waking and sleeping worlds, public speaking seems to cause more than almost anything else. But there are lots of tricks you can use to overcome this fear, from simple breathing exercises to advanced visualisation techniques. Public speaking expert Jonathan Faith recommends these methods to improve your .
“First, remember that a speech is not a , and your goal is not entertainment but . To that end, make sure you practise what you’re going to say until your speech is as familiar as your own face! The best appear calm because they’ve rehearsed a hundred times. If you panic during the speech and you’re to get the words out, pause for a moment, count to five, and start again. And don’t feel you have to look at the audience – imagine a friend or family member at the back of the room, and talk to them.”
For questions 25 – 30, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.
25 Peter never takes any notice of what his family say.
Peter never what his family say.
26 ‘Did you go to the football match on Saturday?’ Julia asked me.
Julia wanted to know the football match on Saturday.
27 Despite having a serious injury, Sarah was able to finish the race.
Sarah was able to finish the race a serious injury.
28 The lawnmower was too expensive for us to buy.
We would have bought the lawnmower so expensive.
29 It took me ten days to recover from my cold.
I needed my cold.
30 ‘Don’t do that again, or you’ll be in trouble!’ said the teacher.
The students do that again by the teacher.
You are going to read an extract from an autobiography by a famous chef, Aurora Karlsson. For each question 31 – 36, choose the correct answer.
Chapter 8: My Star Rises
The first time I walked into that restaurant, I knew there was going to be trouble. The previous head chef had worked there for nine years, which is an unusually long time in this business, and the kitchen staff obviously felt a lot of affection for him (which is also rare in this business!). I had big boots to fill, as they say. On top of that I think some of the staff, especially the older men, were shocked to see a tiny, blonde woman as their new boss. Their attitudes were quite traditional, but I was determined to change that.
My determination was tested right away. Honestly, my first night at The Cinnamon Trees was one of the worst of my professional life. Nobody was welcoming towards me, and three of the staff phoned in sick: a kitchen assistant, the fish chef and the caller. It’s easy enough to replace a kitchen assistant, who does simple tasks like peeling vegetables and washing up; I just contacted an agency and they sent a temporary guy. The station chef and caller are not so easily replaced, though. The fish chef knows her dishes inside out, while the caller must be familiar with the whole menu and shout out the next items to be cooked. We had to get through the evening without these two essential people, some food was served late, and a customer complained. I pride myself on the quality of my service, so that was an awful blow.
I had no choice but to hold my head up high and return to work the next day, arriving four hours early in case we were short-staffed again. There was no way I was getting another complaint on day two! Luckily all the staff came in, but
they were still frosty with me and I felt like crying, though of course I hid it. Had I made a terrible mistake leaving my old job, with wonderful colleagues? At the end of the night I was surprised when Caleb, the sous-chef – that’s the second in command in a restaurant kitchen – approached me and asked if I was all right. We only chatted for a few minutes, about nothing in particular, but it meant the world to me and gave me a new optimism.
I wanted to make The Cinnamon Trees the most talked-about venue in the city. There are so many great places to eat here, it’s not enough just to make excellent food. You have to be memorable for something. As the restaurant was already well-known for fish and seafood, I decided to introduce some dishes I remembered from my childhood in Sweden. This turned out to be a winning idea, especially the Janssons frestelse which is a kind of pie with fish, potato, onion and cream. Back home my grandmother would make it for Christmas in a giant pot, but at The Cinnamon Trees I made tiny versions. I kept them light, adding lemon and pepper, and they were a hit. A newspaper critic wrote that my Janssons frestele was the most delicious thing he’d eaten all year!
As soon as that review came out, everything changed. So many people wanted to try the dish we had to start a waiting list. Incredibly, customers were prepared to wait months for a table! I gave interviews in magazines and on TV. But most importantly, the staff who had doubted me at first were now on my side. They were proud to be associated with the restaurant, and of course, it wouldn’t do their future careers any harm.
After finding the recognition I’d always dreamed of, it would have been easy to stay in that job for a long time. But I’m one for a challenge, so after two years I decided to leave and start my own restaurant, Aurora’s. It’s much smaller than The Cinnamon Trees and in a quiet beach town, which was a nice change of pace. We still have a waiting list, though! And guess who I invited to help me run the place – someone who once showed me kindness, and who I’d slowly come to trust? That’s right: my old sous-chef, Caleb.
31. In paragraph one, what do we learn about the previous head chef?
32. What does Aurora say about kitchen assistants?
33. When Aurora says that ‘the staff…were still frosty with me’, she means that they
34. What is the main idea of paragraph four?
35. When Aurora says, ‘they were a hit’, she means that
36. This extract is about a chef who
You are going to read a magazine article about animals who have helped people. Six sentences have been removed from the article. For questions 37 – 42, choose the correct sentence and move it into the gap. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
Animals Who Serve
In the UK, it is common to see blue plaques outside historic buildings. These plaques give information about the famous person or people who once lived within. However, a new blue sign in the town of Exeter has surprised residents by honouring not a person, but a pigeon! Mary the pigeon, who belonged to shoe-maker Cecil Brewer, delivered secret messages during World War II. More than 70 years after the war ended, it was decided that Mary’s home, the shoemaker’s shop, should be decorated with a blue plaque.
Mr Brewer offered Mary, his favourite bird, to the National Pigeon Service in 1940. She was sent to France with the aim of collecting messages and bringing them home. Mary made three trips which resulted in wounds to her neck, breast and wing, from gun fire and from larger birds. After she retired, Mary was awarded the Dickin Medal for Bravery, a prize given to animals who have shown great courage.
Only 70 such medals have ever been awarded. Other recipients include dogs who saved people from burning buildings and horses who controlled traffic after explosions. Of course, thousands of animals show heroism every day. There are stories of dolphins saving humans from dangerous situations at sea. Animals have also been observed helping other animals for no obvious gain. In some cases they protect smaller creatures, and in others adopt babies of different species.
The connection between humans and some animals is clearly deep, though not well understood. In the 1930s, the doctor Sigmund Freud started to carefully watch his patients when they came to see him. This was the start of ‘animal therapy’ which is widely used today to help people suffering from physical and mental illnesses. Studies have shown that interacting with household pets can lower stress. In addition, some American hospitals are now introducing larger animals: llamas and alpacas! Friendly, woolly animals native to Peru, llamas and alpacas are unfamiliar and intriguing to most patients. They appear to bring comfort to all they meet, from hyperactive children to lonely elderly people.
A hospital in London also hit the news recently when it began using snakes as therapy animals for depressed patients. One advantage of snakes is that they demand a lot of care, which allows the patient to focus on something other than their own thoughts. Looking after a snake is a specialised skill that encourages responsibility and pride, therapists suggest. It can be a reason to get out of bed in the morning. Moreover, a snake will never judge you – unlike a cat, who is likely to walk away when bored!
Anyone who has ever kept a pet knows the power of the human-animal bond. In Britain, over 40% of households have a pet, while in the USA and Australia the figure jumps to over 60%. Pets calm us down and reduce our blood pressure, so the data make perfect sense, although most owners are not aware of these benefits. But from chickens to sheep to mice, pets seem to return our love. They become part of the family, and are there for us when times get tough. Not every animal can be a medal-winning hero, but they’re all heroes to their owners.
- A majority of us just enjoy spending time with animals without really knowing why.
- Though a nightmare for some, doctors realised men and boys responded better to reptiles than the traditional cat.
- He noticed that they were more relaxed if his dog was present.
- We rely on police dogs, search-and-rescue dogs and service dogs, who support people with disabilities.
- The medal bears the words: ‘We Also Serve’.
- Having a pet can improve children’s social skills, as well as teaching them about the cycle of life and death.
- She returned to duty several times in spite of injury.
You are going to read four people’s comments on an internet page about photography. For questions 43 – 52, choose the correct section. The sections may be chosen more than once.
Taking Better Photographs: Advice for Beginners
The Daily Standard interviewed four people about their exercise habits.
Forget about expensive equipment because the most valuable piece of kit you have is your eyes. The winning entry in a recent photographic competition was taken on a phone camera, which just goes to show. You have to learn about composition – how to organise the lines and shapes in an image. If something catches your attention, photograph it in as many different ways as you can think of. Shoot familiar subjects from above, below, or another unusual angle to make them new and strange. Colour is important too, so look out for combinations like bright green leaves against red bricks, or a clear blue sky behind a yellow bird. By all means study the techniques used by famous photographers but try to develop your own individual style. Really, there are very few rules. Trust your creative ideas, experiment constantly and allow yourself to fail.
Keep your camera with you all the time. You never know when you’ll encounter an interesting subject; the best shot I ever took was on a near-empty Sunday train, a portrait of a woman with an old leather suitcase and two massive dogs. For me, those unexpected moments are still the best part of my job after 25 years. When I started out I did weddings, family portraits, that sort of thing, but these days I shoot celebrities for magazines. You learn that human beings have a lot in common. To capture someone’s personality, you have to spend time getting to know them. Most people have a range of expressions they usually wear for the camera. It’s your task as a photographer to catch the ones they wear in private! Having said that, if the subject isn’t happy with a photo you should never use it. Respect is essential because a good or bad reputation spreads fast in this industry.
My advice is simple: spend as much as you can afford on your camera and accessories. That’s not to say it’s impossible to take good photos on a cheaper model. But as you become more skilled, you’ll really appreciate the higher image quality. A common mistake that beginners make is to think that one lens is enough. Most camera bodies come with a prime lens, which has a fixed length and sees the world much like the human eye. You’ll also need a zoom lens, which appears to bring your subject closer and is useful for photographing wildlife. And if you like landscape photography, you should consider a wide-angle lens that increases your view from left to right. Tripods are useful here too, because nobody’s hands are as steady as they think. After just 0.016 seconds you’re likely to get ‘camera shake’, resulting in an image that’s out of focus.
I’ve always admired the French photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson, who talked about ‘the decisive moment’. He would wait for hours, sometimes days, at a site that interested him, like at the top of a flight of stairs in a town square. When someone walked into the space he’d try to use them as an element of his composition, with incredible results. You might say Cartier-Bresson’s method is irrelevant today, when mobile phones can take several pictures a second and we have editing tools, but I’d disagree. A good photograph should be as considered as a painting. There’s been an increase in the quantity of photos taken over the last decade, but not the quality. That’s a shame. To my mind, the only thing that will raise the quality is a return to patience.
43. wishes people took more time over their photos?
44. says that the kind of camera you use is not important?
45. advises owning a wide range of equipment?
46. is a professional photographer?
47. talks about someone they consider a hero?
48. usually takes photographs of people?
49. argues that technology is not an excuse to be lazy?
50. believes that skill comes from practice and making mistakes?
51. thinks that expensive cameras take better pictures?
52. emphasises trust between a photographer and their models?