Time: 1 hour 15 minutes
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
- Answer all the questions.
- You can change your answers at any time during the test.
INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
- There are 52 questions in this test.
- Each question in Parts 1, 2, 3 and 7 carries one mark.
- Each question in Part 4 carries up to two marks.
- Each question in Parts 5 and 6 carries two marks.
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For questions 1-8, read the text and choose the correct answer for each gap. Click on a gap and a choice of words will appear. Then choose the correct answer.
- Government for Everyone
A lot of voters are suspicious of politicians, and perhaps with good reason: in many countries, members of government seem to be rather old, and rather male. Of course, there is nothing wrong with old, male politicians, but can such a narrow group speak and act on behalf of a nation? The good news is that women and young people’s voices are being heard more and more, adding variety to a previously uniform political .
Although, in 2017, Donald Trump became America’s oldest president, in the same year 39- year-old Emmanuel Macron was as France’s youngest ever leader. Meanwhile, in Iceland, new prime minister Katrín Jakobsdóttir was almost as at 41 – and a woman! In fact, she is the second female premier on the progressive island. But many campaigners want to on the public rather than on politicians, suggesting that the voting age should be . Twelve nations, including Brazil and Austria, have reduced their voting age to 16. This , say its advocates, is the best way to increase engagement in the future.
Read the text. Think of the word which best fits each gap. Write the correct word in each gap (9 – 16).
- The Orchestra
The first orchestras appeared in the 1600s and existed only to support opera singers. However, they soon became popular their own right and composers started to write music, called symphonies, just for them. A modern symphony orchestra might have up to 100 musicians, sit in a semi-circle to play; the word orchestra comes from Greek refers to this semi-circular performance space.
At the head the orchestra is one person, the conductor, who leads the musicians while they play. Directly to the front and sides of the conductor are string instruments, such violins. Strings make up the largest section of an orchestra. Behind them is the woodwind section containing flutes, clarinets and on, and slightly further back are brass instruments like trumpets. At the rear is the percussion session containing, for example, drums, and a piano if one is be used. Modern composers have sometimes included noise-making objects that fall of these four groups, from glass bottles to iron chains, and even in one case a typewriter!
Read the text. For questions 17 – 24, use the word on the right to form a word that fits in the gap. For each question, write your answer in the gap.
Red-Faced Brits Keyword List A study has found that British people suffer from mild to medium embarassment on average four times a day. The most common causes included tripping over in public, sweating, and burping . Another situation often mentioned in the survey was forgetting someone’s name during an . One woman said she felt of her very high voice. Another had been left red-faced after a coughing fit in a presentation became .
Of course, these things are quite normal and we shouldn’t give a hard time over them. Even if others laugh at us, it is rarely out of but relief that for once, this thing happened to someone else. As children we learn that our lives don’t end because of one embarrassing incident; in fact, by the time we reach , many of those incidents have become stories. So the next time you notice spinach in your teeth or soup on your tie, don’t take it too seriously. As the Brits themselves say: keep calm and carry on.
For questions 25 – 30, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.
- 25 I will help you only if you promise to make an effort.
I will promise to make an effort.
26 I’ve had enough of the noise from that party!
I refuse the noise from that party anymore!
27 I eat beef, but it has to be well cooked.
I eat beef, but well cooked.
28 His health improved so quickly he went home a week after his surgery.
There in his condition he went home a week after his surgery.
29 I’m impressed by how much Spanish she knows.
30 We demanded to speak with the shop owner.
We with the shop owner.
You are going to read a magazine article about vegetarian diets. For each question 31 – 36, choose the correct answer.
A Meat-Free Future?
Around five percent of the global population follows a vegetarian diet. In Europe the figure is 10 percent, while in India almost a third of the country abstains from meat and fish. What’s more, the numbers are rising. Restaurants and supermarkets now offer vegetarian options as a matter of course. There have even been government schemes to discourage meat-eating, from Germany to China. What is causing people to turn away from animal products towards fruits and vegetables?
Vegetarianism is not new, of course. Two and a half thousand years ago, Buddha and Pythagoras refused to eat animals. In Renaissance Italy, Leonardo da Vinci freed birds from their cages and practised a vegetarian diet. But the numbers of people now following plant- based diets are higher than ever before. It has been suggested there are four reasons for this: moral objections; health concerns; environmental concerns; and religious duties.
Many people object not only to the killing of animals for food, but to the way they are killed. Today, the life of a cow bred for beef is likely to be miserable and short, unlike in the past when farms were much smaller. If we can survive without that steak, shouldn’t we try to reduce the suffering of our fellow creatures? This seems to be a primary motivation for some, including Daniel, 34. He says, “I stopped eating meat after watching a documentary about factory farming and pigs. They feel pain and fear. They’re as smart as three-year-old humans! I realised I could easily switch to veggie sausages.”
Health is another central concern for many. Marie-Laure, 50, explains that she turned to veganism five years ago because “I really felt sick from eating rich food. Cutting out meat and dairy has changed my life. I sleep better and have more energy during the day. My only regret is that it’s hard to find vegan options in the cafes where I live. But on the plus side, I’ve become more creative in the kitchen.” Vegetarian and vegan (no dairy, eggs or honey) diets have indeed been shown to improve mood and skin condition, as well as reducing the chance of heart problems. And of course, with so many foods off-limits, the amount of vegetables on your plate rises, increasing uptake of essential vitamins.
The impact of meat farming on the environment is newly understood, but certainly serious. According to some estimates, the manufacture of animal products causes up to 50% of global pollution. In addition, rainforests are cut down all over Brazil for cattle to graze. Luiz, 22, decided to skip the burgers after reading about the Amazon forests. “It’s shocking,” he says. “We now have 450,000 square kilometres of land for cattle, and maybe that’s good for the economy but it’s terrible for ecology. It’s rare to be a vegetarian in my country but it feels like something I have to do.”
Followers of religions like Hinduism and Sikhism have felt that obligation for centuries, though neither faith insists upon a meat-free diet. Vegetarianism is practised to show compassion for other living beings. Jainism, on the other hand, forbids animal products as well as potatoes, onion, garlic and mushrooms. India is by reputation a paradise for vegetarians and vegans, and Jasmine, 39, discovered this to be true. “I spent a month there on holiday and I couldn’t believe the range and quality of vegetarian dishes. I especially loved the paneer, which is a kind of cheese, and the incredible bean and lentil curries. Indian cuisine proves how unnecessary meat is,” she says.
For those who truly can’t imagine life without roast chicken, perhaps it is still an option to become a ‘reducetarian’. This new movement encourages people to eat fewer animal products, but not to feel guilty if they sometimes fail. “Not everyone is willing to follow an all-or-nothing diet,” notes Reducetarian president Brian Kateman, but a reduction in meat-eating will still benefit the planet – and all who live on it.
31. What is the meaning of ‘abstain’ in the first paragraph?
32. The topic of the third paragraph is
33. Since giving up meat, Marie-Laure has
34. Why did Luiz decide to follow a vegetarian diet?
35. In paragraph six, India is described as ‘a paradise for vegetarians’. It means that
36. The author’s purpose in writing the article is to
You are going to read an extract from a novel, in which a young boy finds himself in hospital after an accident. Six sentences have been removed from the article. For questions 37 – 42, choose the correct sentence and move it into the gap. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
I couldn’t open my eyes properly. It felt like there was glue on my eyelashes, so I didn’t even try. I kept them shut and let the black and yellow patterns move around under my lids. I could hear just fine, though – female voices, my mum, my gran and my sister. I’m the only boy in my family. I wished I could look at my mum’s hair. They all laugh the same, too, a bit like a chicken or those birds at Keaton Park, but they weren’t laughing now. It sounded like my mum was crying so I tried to speak, to tell her not to worry, but nothing would come out of my throat. Maybe someone glued that shut as well.
Why was I covered in glue? And was that what I could smell? No, the smell was stronger, like when they clean the toilets after school. A smell that makes you want to run down the corridor and into the playground, into the fresh air, except there’s always a teacher behind you shouting DON’T RUN! so you have to walk as fast as you can. We’re not trying to stop you having fun, says Mrs Mackay. We don’t want you to slip on that wet floor. Mrs Mackay has curly hair too, and a skirt with checks, and grey shoes that squeak on the library floor.
I could still feel, too, because my gran was touching my arm. Her fingers bunch up around the rings on her fingers. My granddad gave them to her a long time ago: one when he asked her to marry him, and the other one on their wedding day. I don’t know how I’ll find the money for rings if I want to ask a girl to marry me because I only get five pounds a week from my mum. I have a kind of plan though for when I’m older, which is to walk people’s dogs and they pay me. Dogs are the best, but I’m not allowed one because we live in a flat.
It was heavy, maybe even the weight of a dog, but I knew it couldn’t be a dog because I’d feel the fur. Also it was so uncomfortable that I wanted it to get off, and I’d never feel that way about a dog because I love it when they sit on you, even when they knock you down. When I was small I was frightened but my dad used to say, They don’t know their own size. They just want to play. After that I wasn’t scared. But I was a bit scared about this thing on my foot. , Once I saw a man on TV who could answer questions with his eyes, one blink for yes and two for no, but my eyes were still too sticky for that.
In year two, we made posters of the five senses. I checked them off in my mind: I could smell and feel and hear, but not see or taste. People can survive without all their senses, like there’s a girl in year five who can’t hear properly but she can still understand what you say. I really liked seeing, though. It made me sad to think I might not see those things, or my mum’s curls, ever again, and I started to cry. That’s when the glue started to come loose.
- I liked it when you opened the curtains and saw snow in the garden, and the lights on the tree at Christmas.
- As well as my gran’s hand I could sense something on my foot.
- It hurt and I couldn’t open my mouth to say so, and what if my mouth was glued shut forever?
- The women all look the same, with skinny legs and a shock of brown curls around their heads.
- My mum still wore a ring from my dad, which his mum had given to him.
- I like her, really, because she puts shiny stickers in your workbook if you’ve done neat handwriting.
- I knew it was my gran because the skin on her hands is old and papery.
You are going to read four people’s opinions on the best kind of holiday. For questions 43 – 52, choose the correct section. The sections may be chosen more than once.
Holiday Heaven, Holiday Hell
We asked four people about the sights, sounds and smells of their perfect holiday…
I’ve never understood those people who go to the beach on holiday. What’s the appeal? There’s nothing to do except get in and out of the water, and maybe read a couple of novels. I soon get bored of that; I’ve got pale skin, too, so I’m in pain after a couple of hours. I’d much rather be on my feet. I look for a holiday with plenty of action, like hiking, climbing or sailing. I want to work up a sweat and feel like I’ve earned my dinner! The only beach holiday I ever enjoyed was when I learnt to surf in Bali. I met my husband on that trip so perhaps I’m biased, but I relished the freedom and the physical challenge. I’m lucky that my day-to-day work is stimulating, but I’m still trapped in an office for 40 hours a week. Why would I spend my holiday sitting down as well?
My parents loved the outdoors so our family holidays were always spent in the countryside, but to tell the truth nature leaves me cold. Now that I can decide for myself, I generally plump for a solo urban adventure. European cities especially have such rich and fascinating histories. I can spend days wandering around museums and old streets, just soaking up the atmosphere. I also got into sketching a few years ago. I’ll sit outside a café and draw whatever’s around me, and my sketchbooks are better souvenirs than any postcard or fridge magnet! There’s another advantage to cities for a foodie like me: world-class restaurants. I take myself to dinner because I like my own company. That’s where my money goes when I’m away.
I love to party and meet new people, so I usually stay in a youth hostel. It’s easy to strike up conversations, make friends and get advice about the best places to go out. A few months ago I went to Berlin, because it has such a good reputation for nightlife. I queued for three hours to get into a techno club but I didn’t even mind; it was a strange kind of fun standing in the line, chatting with people from all over the world. I didn’t get back to the hostel until midday – this city knows how to have a good time! I fell for its sausages and crazy street art too. I’m sure staying out all night is lots of people’s holiday hell, but I’m young and I want to have as many new experiences as I can. There’ll be plenty of time for cultural trips later, probably when I’m married and have a couple of kids.
For me, holidays are about luxury. Daily life can be boring and stressful, so I save all year for a memorable break. I’ve been to Australia, the Maldives and the Caribbean, and next June I’m going to visit Bali. I’ve heard the hot stone massages there are incredible. I usually go away for at least three weeks, because it takes me four or five days just to switch off from work stuff. There’s nothing I like more than lying on the sand, topping up my tan, and reading the latest thrillers. The evenings are wonderful too. You can watch the sun go down with a cocktail and grilled lobster, with the sound of the waves in the background. How romantic is that? If I’m ever feeling down, I flick through my holiday albums and it cheers me up immediately. I’m already counting the days until my next trip – you can probably tell!
43. is happy to socialise with strangers on holiday?
44. probably doesn’t enjoy their job very much?
45. values time spent alone?
46. most likely earns the highest salary?
47. can’t spend a long time in the sun?
48. found romance on a surfing holiday?
49. integrates their love of art into their holidays?
50. doesn’t place much importance on a daily routine?
51. aims to do as little as possible on holiday?
52. has little patience with reading fiction?