Time: 1 hour 15 minutes
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
- Answer all the questions.
- You can change your answers at any time during the test.
INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
- There are 52 questions in this test.
- Each question in Parts 1, 2, 3 and 7 carries one mark.
- Each question in Part 4 carries up to two marks.
- Each question in Parts 5 and 6 carries two marks.
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For questions 1-8, read the text and choose the correct answer for each gap. Click on a gap and a choice of words will appear. Then choose the correct answer.
- The Genius of the Mayans
If you think of pyramids, you probably think of the ancient Egyptians. But the Mayan people, who have lived in Central America for 4,000 years, also pioneered this type of architecture and many others. The Mayans were an advanced civilisation who developed ‘technology’ we take for granted today: calendars, a legal system, underground tanks for water – even ball courts! Perhaps their most incredible invention was their writing system, which is the only one from the ancient Americas that historians can understand.
The Mayans wrote their language, which contained 800 characters, on stones or in cloth books called codices. Most of the characters were pictures with a meaning each, similar to Egyptian letters. Other characters for individual syllables of words, as in modern Japanese. The Mayans recorded their scientific , their history and their religion; the is that when the Spanish invaded the region in the 16th century, they destroyed most of the codices. Only a few survive, the most of which is the Dresden Codex now on display in a German museum.
Read the text. Think of the word which best fits each gap. Write the correct word in each gap (9 – 16).
- A Broken Leg
I was 35 years old the first time I broke a bone. I suppose I was lucky it never happened before, but when I broke my leg I was unprepared for how difficult my life was about to become! I live alone, for the first two days after the accident my best friend stayed in my spare room and helped me out. He was great, doing the cooking and cleaning and taking my mind the pain. The real challenges began Tom went back to work.
The doctors had given me a pair of crutches to help me walk but I couldn’t believe painful they were. They were awkward to move, and I couldn’t carry anything I was using them. Even moving around my flat became an impossible mission – several times, I felt throwing the crutches out of the window! Going outdoors was even harder, of course. It made me aware of how tough it is for people who have to deal this kind of thing all the time.
Read the text. For questions 17 – 24, use the word on the right to form a word that fits in the gap. For each question, write your answer in the gap.
Who Are You? Keyword List You probably know a little about your grandparents, but what happens if you go another generate back: who were your great-grandparents? Or even the people that came before them? Thanks to the internet, our access to historical information is almost , so thousands of people have begun digging into their pasts.
The starting point for any will be your surname, which contains more clues than you could imagine! Surnames can refer to features of a landscape, for example Hill, or to , like Cook. Names like Johnson – John’s son – indicate family while others, such as Fox, were likely to have been nicknames . Perhaps you can guess the meaning of your own surname before you find out for sure.
As well as looking online, you might consider a visit to your local library or records office. Since the nineteenth century, in Europe at least, it has been a legal to register all births, deaths and , so these places are a treasure trove of useful information. So why not satisfy your about your roots – were your ancestors princes or peasants?
For questions 25 – 30, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.
- 25 The coastguard was unable to rescue the family from the storm.
The coastguard the family from the storm.
26 I’d prefer you not to wear that jacket to the party.
I’d that jacket to the party.
27 You should have seen the mess she made!
If seen the mess she made!
28 I don’t like it when you call me so late at night.
I me so late at night.
29 They left early because he they didn’t want to get stuck in traffic.
They left early get stuck in traffic.
30 You should wear a coat so that you don’t get cold.
You should wear a coat cold.
You are going to read an extract from the biography of a famous actor, Richie Demeter. For each question 31 – 36, choose the correct answer.
A Cultural Crime
Richie found it hard to fit in at secondary school, where popularity seemed to depend on sporting ability. He was shy, with few friends, and preferred to spend his lunch hours in the library than on the football field. He would hide between the tall shelves and read novels, poems and plays. Richie felt a special connection to the playwright Joe Orton. He had to hide his giggles from the librarians when he read Orton’s dark comedies – the characters and situations really showed how ridiculous life could be.
In English class, Richie mentioned this interest to his teacher. Mr Lewis coughed uncomfortably and said that kind of play wasn’t suitable for a 14-year-old, which only made Richie more determined to find out all he could about Orton. He discovered that Orton had been an actor as well as a playwright; that he had studied at RADA, the prestigious London drama school; and that he had spent time in prison during the 1960s for altering the front covers of library books.
These discoveries inspired two decisions in the teenaged Richie. First, he resolved to follow in his hero’s footsteps, and work in the theatre one day. And second, he planned to replicate Orton’s trouble-making in the library.
For weeks Mr Lewis had made the class study Alfred Tennyson, whose poems had bored Richie half to death and who would therefore make an excellent first target. While the librarians were gathered together at the reception desk, Richie stole a book of Tennyson’s poems from the shelf. He removed the cover image, a long-haired lady in a boat, from its plastic jacket, and replaced it with an image of his own design. Richie had copied an old photo of Tennyson, added lines on the poet’s forehead and spiders in his beard. He slid the book back onto the shelf.
Richie repeated this trick as often as he dared, drawing graffiti on the portraits of Romantic writers his teacher admired. John Keats was decorated with a moustache and earrings; William Wordsworth acquired a baseball cap and a pearl necklace. But then one day, as Richie was replacing Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s nose with an elephant’s trunk, he looked up to see two faces staring down at him.
“What on earth do you think you’re doing?” hissed Mrs Pearson, the head librarian.
“I told you it was him!” said Mr Snaresbrook, the assistant.
Richie put down his pen and tried to appear calm, but he was trembling inside. Mrs Pearson grabbed his sleeve and marched him to the office of the headteacher, carrying a small pile of evidence in her other hand. As they walked along the corridor, students turned to stare. They had never seen Richie get in trouble for anything.
The headteacher seemed equally surprised to see him.
“Sit!” he barked. “What is the meaning of this vandalism?”
Richie looked at his knees, and managed to keep his voice steady as he talked about Joe Orton, but he was starting to wonder what his punishment would be. In fact, he realised, there would be two punishments: one from the school, and one from his parents who would surely be informed of his cultural crime. As Richie finished his story and looked up at the headteacher’s face, he thought he saw the trace of a smile.
“I’m a fan of Joe Orton myself,” he said, “but this kind of behaviour is not acceptable. We’ve moved on from the sixties, so I won’t have you locked up” – here the old man definitely grinned – “but next Monday you will give a presentation to your class on the life and works of Joe Orton. Make sure you research it properly.”
A punishment indeed! Public speaking was Richie’s worst nightmare. However, his talk was well received by the class who now regarded him in a new light. He was no longer a geek; he was a rebel! In fact, Orton never let Richie down. Four years later, Richie performed a monologue from Orton’s Entertaining Mr Sloane as his RADA audition piece – and was immediately offered a place at the school.
31. What is the meaning of ‘giggles’ in the first paragraph?
32. Richie’s English teacher
33. In the fourth paragraph, Richie
34. Which of these words can replace ‘trembling’ in paragraph eight?
35. What is the main idea of paragraph 12?
36. In the final paragraph we learn that
You are going to read a blog post about fusion food. Six sentences have been removed from the post. Six sentences have been removed from the article. For questions 37 – 42, choose the correct sentence and move it into the gap. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
English food gets a bad press, but the nation’s most famous export – fish and chips – has still managed to become a global favourite. There’s nothing more English than fish and chips, right? Wrong. Fish and chips are an early example of ‘fusion food’: dishes created by combining the cuisines of two or more cultures. The combination was a hit. By the 1920s there were more than 35,000 fish and chip shops across the country, selling cheap ‘fish suppers’ wrapped in paper.
This post will introduce you to some of the most exciting dishes to try, from the USA to Japan. Bon appetit!
Yoshoku is a style of cooking that combines ingredients from Japan and the West. Popular dishes include omurice, which is rice fried with ketchup then wrapped in an omelette, and katsu curry, pork fried in breadcrumbs served with spicy sauce. Yoshoku meals are eaten with a fork and spoon, unlike traditional Japanese food that needs chopsticks.
Tex-Mex is probably the world’s best-known fusion food today. For years culinary ideas have flowed over the border between Mexico and the American state of Texas, resulting in classics like the burrito. Originally created in Mexico and filled with just meat and beans, when the burrito crossed into the USA it grew larger and was stuffed with more ingredients. Yum!
American Chinese food is now a staple of TV lawyers working after-hours! Even small towns in the USA now have a noodle bar. Chinese migrants to the Uniteds States adapted dishes from their homeland to suit local tastes, leading to the development of chow mein noodles, sweet and sour sauce, and even fortune cookies. It is thought that the first fortune cookie was made in San Francisco, around 7,000 kilometres from China!
Similarly, British Indian cuisine emerged after mass immigration from South Asia in the twentieth century. (Pakistani and Bangladeshi restaurants are often wrongly called Indian.) A typical example is chicken tikka masala. Its precise origins are contested, but a Pakistani chef probably invented it while working at a restaurant in Scotland. The chef added tomato soup and cream to improve it, and the customer was delighted. He kept coming back for more until tikka masala was added to the menu permanently.
Finally, California cuisine is a type of cooking that developed in the 1970s. California cuisine is characterised by healthy, local ingredients prepared with foreign methods. Careful presentation on the plate is crucial. A related concept is the California pizza, which replaces traditional elements with more exotic ones. For example, the Thai chicken pizza uses peanut sauce instead of tomato, and is topped with chillies and bean sprouts!
Even if you don’t live in a cosmopolitan city, you’ve probably eaten fusion food without realising. Now that globalisation has brought international ingredients to our supermarkets, you could even try creating your own fusion dishes at home. You might not get it right first time, but that’s always been the point of fusion food. Just experiment and have fun!
- Fast forward 100 years, and fusion food is now found all over the world.
- How about spaghetti with soy sauce, or a croissant with Korean barbecued beef?
- Thai roast duck curry combines local spices with Chinese roast duck and grapes from the Middle East.
- These days, it’s common to see huge rolls containing everything from sour cream to avocado.
- Fried fish was introduced to England by Spanish and Portuguese Jews, and combined with local fried potatoes some time in the nineteenth century.
- It borrowed not from one country but many, including France, Italy and Japan.
- A customer returned a chicken curry for being too dry.
You are going to read four people’s views on fashion and shopping. For questions 43 – 52, choose the correct section. The sections may be chosen more than once.
Smart Suit or Second-hand Sweater?
We asked four members of the public to tell us about their style….
I don’t really have a style. Fashion seems like a huge waste of time to me. As soon as you perfect your wardrobe, a new trend comes along and you have to go shopping again! Some of my colleagues go into town whenever they can to try on the latest stuff, but I’d rather stay at home and bake or read a magazine. I’m thankful I wear a uniform for work because I can’t imagine putting together a new outfit every day. Everything looks wrong on me, somehow; trousers are always too short or too long, and every time I wear this sweater someone asks me if I’m ill! I guess the colour makes me look pale. It would be great if the government issued every adult with a uniform for leisure time, too, so nobody ever had to think about style again. But a lot of people would absolutely hate that.
If you work in architecture, there’s an unwritten rule that you’re meant to wear black. Nobody knows why for sure, but it’s an advantage: the colour makes you look slim, and everything in your wardrobe matches! It can feel a bit boring though. In my free time I love making jewellery, so I often jazz up a plain outfit with a piece I’ve made. I get a lot of compliments from clients on my style. Image is important in our profession and a well-designed necklace is a way to show that you’re a creative person. Older architects seem to have more freedom, though, so I’m looking forward to my fifties. I’ll wear crazy, patterned dresses and nobody will be able to judge me! When I hear myself saying these things I realise it’s all a bit ridiculous. What you wear shouldn’t matter; it’s what’s in your head and heart that counts.
I wish I had more money for clothes. I love reading fashion magazines but everything is always so expensive. Honestly, who has £100 to spend on a scarf? As a poor college student, it seems that the trick is to buy second-hand. There are loads of ways to do that, from websites to charity shops. I’ve picked up some real bargains. I got these jeans for five pounds though they’d only been worn a couple of times. I also got a gorgeous designer dress from an auction site for a quarter of its usual price. The disadvantage with online shopping is that you can’t inspect the quality of a garment or try it for size – you have to trust the seller, though I’ve been lucky so far. Wearing vintage clothes is also better for the environment. As much as I love fashion, I think the industry can be quite wasteful.
In finance there’s little room for negotiation on work outfits. Clients expect you to look a certain way, namely: sharp suit, shiny shoes, plain haircut and no signs of individuality! An expensive watch doesn’t hurt, either. I don’t really mind the restriction, because I feel confident dressed like that and I’m not particularly creative with clothes anyway. At the weekend I’ll just wear jeans and a sweater, which my wife usually chooses. She has fantastic style, whereas I’ll throw on the first thing I find in my wardrobe. My oldest has just turned 13 and she’s inherited her mother’s fashion sense rather than mine, which is lucky! I worry about the pressure on young girls to look a certain way, though. My daughter has a good head on her shoulders, but she’s certainly influenced by photos of celebrities in the latest gear.
43. plans to wear different work clothes later in life?
44. says that no personal style is allowed in their industry?
45. is the most likely to work as a police officer?
46. prioritises other hobbies over fashion?
47. doesn’t mind wearing other people’s old clothes?
48. can’t afford the items they see in magazines?
49. lets other people take responsibility for their outfits?
50. feels that clothes rarely fit or suit them?
51. says that character is more important than clothes?
52. thinks the fashion industry has an impact on teenagers?