Time: 1 hour 15 minutes
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
- Answer all the questions.
- You can change your answers at any time during the test.
INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
- There are 52 questions in this test.
- Each question in Parts 1, 2, 3 and 7 carries one mark.
- Each question in Part 4 carries up to two marks.
- Each question in Parts 5 and 6 carries two marks.
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For questions 1-8, read the text and choose the correct answer for each gap. Click on a gap and a choice of words will appear. Then choose the correct answer.
- Find that Book!
Did you know that libraries the world over are arranged in the same way? The Dewey Decimal System, invented in the United States in 1876, tells library users where to find the book they need. The system uses numbers from one to 1,000 and has 10 main subject . For example, 500 is Science, meaning everything from 500 to 599 to that topic. But the topic is divided even further, so everything between 530 and 539 is about physics, and then divided again, so every book marked 537 is about electricity!
The Dewey System has been 23 times in its lifetime, and is now used in 135 countries. However, the system has sometimes been criticised as being too difficult for the reader to understand. Some people have also suggested that subjects are not given equal ; Christianity has more numbers than other religions, as the system was designed by an American many years ago. But on balance, the Dewey System has made life easier for both librarians and students, millions of whom on it to direct them to their research material.
Read the text. Think of the word which best fits each gap. Write the correct word in each gap (9 – 16).
- Tired All the Time
As a child I had so much energy, but after I moved away from home and started university I was tired all the time. if I went to bed early, I found it a struggle to get out of bed the next morning. I couldn’t be bothered to walk to the local market, I’d buy chips from the cafeteria or cook instant noodles. When I was really exhausted, was most days, I’d eat chocolate bars to wake myself up but I just felt worse and worse.
Eventually I went to my doctor, who told me that my diet was blame. It seems obvious now, but 19 years old I hadn’t made the connection – I had gone from mum’s home-cooked food to junk! He instructed me to cut on sugar and processed food, eat more vegetables, and exercise for 30 minutes a day. At first it seemed impossible my body was so used to sugar. But after I learned a few healthy recipes and my energy returned, I saw the truth in the old saying: you are you eat.
Read the text. For questions 17 – 24, use the word on the right to form a word that fits in the gap. For each question, write your answer in the gap.
The Need for Speed Keyword List Nowadays we take motorways for granted, but as an invention they are only around 100 years old. Italy was the first country to build one after an engineer, Puricelli, proposed a fast road with a of 55 kilometres, connecting the cities of Milan and Varese. was completed around 1925, and the new road started a trend for motorways and later across Europe.
Germany’s Autobahn network was begun in the 1930s and is known for two things: it is among the world’s longest, and the speed limit is ! Only the USA and China have longer networks, and those countries are larger than Germany. And while it sounds dangerous to have no speed limit, German are sensible and accidents are rare.
The UK was slow to develop its motorways, with the M1 from London to Leeds only appearing in 1959. In the early days it was rather , and in 1972 thick fog led to a crash involving 200 vehicles. Though lighting has now improved, the network remains compared to those in mainland Europe.
For questions 25 – 30, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.
- 25 I couldn’t focus with the loud music this morning.
The loud music my concentration this morning.
26 They make that programme for adults.
That programme adults.
27 You must keep your dog on a lead when entering the field.
You your dog on a lead when entering the field.
28 She performs in many shows and writes her own stories too.
Not in many shows, she writes her own stories too.
29 Have you decided which dessert you would like?
Have you made about which dessert you would like?
30 The number of tourists to the region has gone this month.
There has number of tourists to the region this month.
You are going to read a newspaper feature about young people and buying a home. For each question 31 – 36, choose the correct answer.
The Homeless Avocado-Eaters
In 2017, an Australian millionaire told young people to stop buying avocado on toast and expensive coffees. That habit, claimed Tim Gurner, was the reason why they struggled to save money for a home. His comments were repeated by population expert Bernard Salt, who said that people in their twenties should be cooking at home instead of eating out. It was also suggested that millennials – people who have reached adulthood in the early twenty-first century – were afraid of hard work, and that they sat in front of laptops doing pretend jobs.
Needless to say, there was a backlash from twenty-somethings who pointed out that the world has changed since Gurner and Salt were young. They argued that house prices have risen dramatically in the last few decades, while wages have stayed almost the same. Millennials work long hours, they said, but they can never work enough to save a deposit for a house. So who is right? Are millennials lazy and wasteful? Or is it really impossible to get a foot on the housing ladder these days?
In many countries, home ownership has halved within a generation as wages and house prices moved further apart. Britain has often been used as an example. In the 1980s, an average salary was £6,000 and a house cost £25,000. Put simply, a property was around four times a person’s annual income. Now, the average Brit earns £27,000 and can expect to spend £235,000 on a home. A quick calculation reveals that’s closer to eight times their income! In London the situation is even worse, with people being forced to spend 14 times their salary on a house.
And of course, the word ‘spend’ is not quite right. It is rare to find first-time buyers with access to those sums of money, so they are forced to borrow. They can either apply to the bank, where they may be charged high rates of interest, or if they’re lucky they can go to the Bank of Mum and Dad. On top of student loans for those who went to university, young adults can expect their lives to be characterised by debt if they want the same material advantages as their parents.
It is hardly surprising, then, that some young people choose lifestyles that appear extravagant. If buying a home is an impossible dream, why not blow your wages on luxury breakfasts, designer tee-shirts and foreign travel? To older people who tell them to worry about the future, millennials reply: our future will not be the same as yours. Technology is changing the world of work and many other aspects of our lives. Maybe, in 50 years’ time, home ownership will be a thing of the past. Maybe everyone will work online and travel constantly. Maybe accommodation will be rented for just weeks or months at a time.
Division between the generations has always existed, but the present differences seem particularly sharp. When I met Ellie Bennett, 24, a fashion blogger, and her father Tim, 51, an accountant, they admitted they often find themselves in dinner-table debates on the topic of Ellie buying a flat.
‘She won’t make a long-term plan,’ Tim sighed, looking sideways at his daughter, ‘and she won’t consider looking for a more secure job. Her mother and I have offered to lend her money, to give her a helping hand, but she –’
‘My job is perfectly secure!’ Ellie interrupted him. ‘The problem is that you don’t understand it, because it didn’t exist when you were 24. I appreciate what you and mum are trying to do for me, but if I accepted a loan I’d never be free of the debt.’ And what Ellie said next stayed with me for a long time after our interview ended. ‘For young people, buying a house is like tying a rock around your neck.’
31. The first paragraph
32. In the second paragraph, a backlash means
33. Which of these statements is true about Britain today?
34. The author suggests in paragraph four that
35. Which is the correct meaning of extravagant in paragraph five?
36. What do we learn from the interview with Ellie and Tim?
You are going to read an extract from a novel in which two police officers arrive at a crime scene. Six sentences have been removed from the article. For questions 37 – 42, choose the correct sentence and move it into the gap. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
The Vase Attack
‘There’s no sign of a forced entry,’ said Detective Inspector Sherwood, as he pushed open the door with a big black boot, ‘so the victim must have let the attacker in. What do you reckon, guv?’
Sherwood turned around to his boss, but she was still metres behind him in the front garden. Detective Chief Inspector Cassidy was bending down with her hands in the wet grass, and something silver suddenly flashed in the sun.
‘Have you found something?’ Sherwood asked, walking over.
‘Just a button, which could be something or nothing,’ said Cassidy, dropping it into an evidence bag. ‘Come on, let’s have a look inside.’
Cassidy observed that Sherwood was right, and there was no sign of a disturbance here. In a cabinet to the left everything was neatly in its place: a collection of cat statues, some bowls with painted flowers, and a photograph of a girl at the beach, laughing as her hair blew in front of her eyes.
‘Granddaughter?’ asked Sherwood, pointing at the photo.
‘Daughter, more likely,’ said Cassidy, ‘because that was taken years ago. Look at the hairstyle. ’
The pair came through to the living room, where the attack had happened. Two scene-of-crime officers were already there, standing in front of the fireplace on a thick rug and talking together in low voices. They stopped when they saw the newcomers.
With a small cough, the first officer said, ‘We think this is the location of the fall.’
‘Well, she didn’t fall, did she?’ said Cassidy impatiently. ‘Somebody knocked her over – we just need to find out who, and why. I don’t suppose you have any ideas?’
‘There’s blood on the carpet,’ volunteered the second officer, stepping back to reveal several red spots, ‘but until we send a sample to the lab we don’t know whose it is. ’
Cassidy’s eyes moved to a brown stone pot, lying on its side under a coffee table and also dotted with red. It must have weighed several kilos.
‘If that was used as a weapon then Mrs Stewart is lucky to be alive.’
‘Any word from the hospital yet?’ Sherwood asked. ‘Have they said when we’ll be able to interview Mrs Sherwood?’
Cassidy shook her head. She didn’t have much hope of getting useful information from the old woman, who was in her eighties and according to a neighbour, rather easily confused.
‘There’s something else you should see in the kitchen,’ said the first scene-of-crime officer, gesturing for Cassidy and Sherwood to follow him in, ‘and we think it’s a bit odd. We would expect the attacker’s feet to be facing in the direction of the living room, and the victim’s to be facing backwards as she tried to get away from him. But it’s actually the other way round; Mrs Stewart walked forwards into the living room with the man in front of her. So…the vase might not have been used in the way you’d first think.’
There were a few moments of silence as the two detectives processed this information.
‘Wait, let me get this right,’ said Sherwood, rubbing his forehead. ‘Are you saying what I think you’re saying? That Mrs Stewart was the one who held the vase?’
- The two of them walked into the hall, which smelled of dogs and umbrellas.
- There’s also this vase, which we suspect was used as a weapon.
- Sherwood will come back later to collect the evidence, so make sure you leave everything in the place you find it.
- You can see on the floor that there are male and female footprints.
- My mum used to have hers cut like that back in the day.
- In fact, Cassidy thought, she might leave that thankless task to Sherwood.
- The two scene-of-crime officers exchanged private looks, which confused and annoyed Detective Chief Inspector Cassidy in equal measure.
You are going to read a blog post about four tourist attractions in a capital city. For questions 43 – 52, choose the correct section. The sections may be chosen more than once.
Things to do in Martenville
Martenville is the perfect destination for a city break. Here are my top four things to do when you visit!
A. Central Park
No trip to Martenville would be complete without a visit to Central Park. Built in the 1920s and covering two square kilometres, the park has something for everyone, from children’s playgrounds to senior exercise areas. If you love nature, see how many birds you can spot, or hang out with friendly squirrels on the mini hiking trails. Trying to impress your significant other? Why not hire a romantic swan-boat for the afternoon? And don’t forget to stop at Mandy’s organic ice-cream stall and try the incredible peanut butter flavour! Central Park can get crowded on weekends and on public holidays, so try to avoid those times if you can. It’s free to enter, including the small park museum, though visitors are asked to donate if they can. Tickets for the swan-boats and children’s train have a small fee.
B. Weekend Market
The weekend market has been running for 50 years, and has more than 400 stalls selling crafts, delicious home-made foods and second-hand goods. At least three-quarters of the market is under cover so bad weather needn’t put you off! Some of the most famous stalls are: Groovy Vintage, which sells clothes from the 70s, 80s and 90s; Wilton’s Cheeses, run by Roger Wilton (now 83 years old!) since the market began; and The Forest, where you can pick up unique wooden items like musical instruments. I go there all the time for birthday presents, and there are Martenville souvenir items on sale too. If you get tired, there’s a small food court – and some award-winning public toilets! As strange as it sounds, pictures of the toilets make regular appearances on social media…when you see the design you will realise why.
C. Art Museum
This is Martenville’s largest and most popular museum, founded in 2015. Although the museum is quite new, the building is not; until recently it was a factory, and you can see some of its history in the interior design. There are three floors of galleries, with the bottom two holding the permanent collection. On the top floor you can see temporary exhibitions and currently there are video pieces by a local artist, Tran Thi Hoa. There’s an entrance fee for the special exhibitions, but you get free postcards of the artwork and you also get a fantastic view from the roof! In the basement of the museum there’s a gift shop and an Italian restaurant that’s always busy, so reservations are recommended. It’s also worth noting that the nearest metro station, West Street, is the city’s busiest, so get off the train at Anderson Quay and walk the last 500 metres. You’ll easily find the museum because of the Pop Art sculptures outside – a giant ice-cream cone and cake.
D. Evening River Cruise
Martenville gets some beautiful sunsets, especially in the autumn, and one of the best ways to enjoy them is on a river cruise. My husband and I did this many years ago for our tenth wedding anniversary and we didn’t regret it. The tickets aren’t cheap, but they are good value. They include dinner, dessert and drinks, a performance by a jazz band, and professional photographs of your group with the scenery behind you. People tend to dress quite formally, so leave your jeans and trainers at home! The boats leave the harbour at 5 p.m. seven days a week, but you should attempt to book at least a few days in advance. This has to be done in person as there’s no website. Unfortunately children are not allowed on the evening cruise, but there are morning and afternoon trips (leaving at 10 a.m. and 2 p.m.) on which they’re permitted. Happy sailing!
43. is the youngest?
44. has a highly recommended sweet treat?
45. is best visited from Monday to Friday?
46. has restricted hours for children?
47. has an unusual feature that people photograph and post online?
48. does the writer say she regularly visits?
49. has an old-fashioned ticketing system?
50. offers live music?
51. can be clearly seen by people walking nearby?
52. has free displays about its history?