Time: 1 hour 15 minutes
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
- Answer all the questions.
- You can change your answers at any time during the test.
INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
- There are 52 questions in this test.
- Each question in Parts 1, 2, 3 and 7 carries one mark.
- Each question in Part 4 carries up to two marks.
- Each question in Parts 5 and 6 carries two marks.
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For questions 1-8, read the text and choose the correct answer for each gap. Click on a gap and a choice of words will appear. Then choose the correct answer.
- Mission: South Pole
Nobody had ever visited the South Pole before 1911. The first person to do so was the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen, accompanied by a team of four men. Their from Europe to Antarctica took two months, and all five men returned unhurt. Sadly, the same could not be said of their 52 snow dogs, of whom only 11 . And there were other human casualties in the to reach the South Pole.
At around the same time as Amundsen’s team departed, a group of British men set with a similar goal. Led by Robert Falcon Scott, they reached the South Pole five weeks later than the Norwegians. However, on their return, they faced conditions and crew member Lawrence Oates fell seriously ill. Oates left the safety of the tent, famously saying, ‘I am just going outside and may be some time’. He believed his would allow his friends to continue their mission – but the reality was that none of the party made it home. However, the diary of Captain Scott, which was discovered and published in 1912, became a literary .
Read the text. Think of the word which best fits each gap. Write the correct word in each gap (9 – 16).
If you often feel tired and thirsty, or you have trouble seeing clearly, don’t ignore your symptoms. You could be suffering diabetes, a lifelong condition related to the amount of sugar in your blood. People diabetes cannot produce enough insulin – the substance that controls your blood sugar levels – to keep the body in balance. They may have to take medication and make changes to their lifestyle in order remain well.
There are two types of diabetes. Patients with type 1 have a problem with their immune system, means they produce insulin but the body destroys it. Those with type 2 simply do not produce enough insulin. This is often, not always, due to obesity or inactivity. all the diabetics in the UK 90% have type 2, and the disease is the rise. Doctors believe this is because we eat less healthily, and exercise less frequently, we did in the past. To avoid developing diabetes, experts recommend eating regular, healthy meals and walking as often as possible.
Read the text. For questions 17 – 24, use the word on the right to form a word that fits in the gap. For each question, write your answer in the gap.
The Bystander Effect Keyword List In 1964, a woman named Kitty Genovese was famously murdered in New York City. were fascinated by the case because 38 people witnessed the attack on Genovese, but nobody came to help. It couldn’t be true that every one of these witnesses was cold and – so what was going on?
Later experiments showed that in an emergency, the greater the number of witnesses, the less it was that any of them would intervene. Each bystander assumed someone else would offer . This collective public to help became known as ‘the bystander effect’. On the contrary, when an faked street accidents for just one bystander, he or she offered help 70% of the time.
An American TV programme called What Would You Do? tests the bystander effect using hidden cameras. Members of the public witness ‘crimes’ such as stealing in a crowded store, and their are filmed. Recent episodes have included not only crimes but moral dilemmas, such as children abusing a homeless person on a busy street. We all like to think of ourselves as people – but could you really beat the bystander effect?
For questions 25 – 30, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.
- 25 The workers didn’t accept the offer of a pay rise.
The offer of a pay rise the workers.
26 Almost all the food had been eaten when I arrived.
There when I arrived.
27 We thought it was best to spend the evening talking instead of doing any work.
We thought it was best to spend the evening talking any work.
28 Steve was only offering his help because he thought you were in trouble.
If Steve didn’t think you were in trouble his help.
29 On hearing the good news I decided to call my friend.
I decided to call my friend the good news.
30 The woman asked how much the car would cost the following week.
“What week for this car?” asked the woman.
You are going to read a blog post about studying for an online Masters degree. For each question 31 – 36, choose the correct answer.
An Online Masters
Are you thinking of studying for an online Masters degree? With just a month to go before (hopefully!) finishing mine, I’d like to share my experiences with readers of this blog. I’m going to tell you some of the things I wish someone had told me before I started!
The first thing to say is that postgraduate study is seriously hard work and you have to be sure why you’re doing it. There are lots of reasons why people take Masters degrees. Maybe you finished your undergraduate studies and you don’t know what to do next. Maybe your employer wants you to improve your qualifications, or you’re thinking of changing career altogether. Maybe you’ve always been passionate about a particular subject and just want to know more. Some of these reasons are probably better than others. My advice is simply this: if you’re half-hearted about further study, don’t do it. There’s too much potential for wasted time and money.
It’s also worth mentioning the difference between face-to-face and online study, because the latter is not for everyone. You have to work independently, manage your time well and motivate yourself when things get tough. You also need to be fairly confident with technology these days. Though you’ll have access to a tutor and peer group, it’s not the same as attending a bricks-and-mortar university several times a week – so if you know you can get lazy, consider the more traditional route.
If you decide to take the plunge, my next piece of advice would be to choose your institution and course with care. Do plenty of online research and pay particular attention to reviews from students who have first-hand experience. Even universities with good reputations have better and worse courses. Who will your tutors be? Are they respected in their field? What kind of support will you get – and is it worth the money? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself.
Once you’ve settled on a course and received your first materials, you’ll probably have a rush of enthusiasm. You’ll buy new stationery, post comments in all the online forums, and meet your deadlines with ease. I’m sorry to break this to you, but it won’t last! The first few months are the honeymoon period, when everything is new and exciting, but later you’ll almost certainly encounter boredom and difficulty. Some of the materials might not interest you, or you might have work and family commitments that steal your time. When this happens, be honest with yourself and set priorities.
Another thing you have to manage is the relationship with your tutor. They don’t want to hear from you every time you have a problem, but if there’s a major issue make sure you inform them. Their job is to help you, but they can’t do that if they don’t know what’s happening. To get the very best support from your tutor, remember they are likely busy and write your messages with that in mind. Be clear about why you’re contacting them and what you need.
The biggest challenge of your Masters degree will probably be your dissertation – the extended essay that you write at the end of the course. At around 15,000 words, it could be the longest thing you’ve ever written (it certainly was for me). But in some ways, writing it is the easy part. The research required for a Masters dissertation is extensive, and you’ve got to be organised. Make notes on everything you read, because that quote won’t be as easy to find again as you think! To save yourself a lot of trouble, I’d also recommend investing in some decent referencing software. You only have to enter the details of each publication once, and the rest is automatic. It’s a lifesaver.
I think that’s all for now, but maybe I’ll update this post in a month’s time! Wish me luck with the rest of my dissertation – and I wish you luck with whatever Masters degree you decide to pursue.
31. In the second paragraph, the writer suggests that
32. In the third paragraph, a bricks-and-mortar university is one that
33. In paragraph four, what does the writer mean by take the plunge?
34. Which sentence best summarises the ideas in paragraph five?
35. What does the writer advise about contacting a tutor?
36. When working on the Masters dissertation, the writer recommends
You are going to read the opening of a short story, in which two sisters meet after many years. Six sentences have been removed from the article. For questions 37 – 42, choose the correct sentence and move it into the gap. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
A Strange Reunion
Nicola sat down on a yellow plastic chair, then immediately stood up again and took off her coat, hanging it on the back of her seat. The windows of the café were steamed up, making the street outside invisible. As soon as she sat down for the second time Nicola realised she was cold, but she could hardly stand up and put her coat back on, so she blew on her hands and tried to concentrate on the menu.
Or what if she did, but didn’t recognise her younger sister? After all, Nicola had changed a lot in the last 15 years. She was thinner, her hair was shorter, and her dress sense had definitely improved. The last time Gemma had seen her, Nicola had been a rebellious schoolgirl in a short skirt and too much make-up. Today she wore her nurse’s uniform, mindful of the fact she had a shift in two hours’ time. Please don’t be late, she thought. You were always late.
What would Gemma look like now? How might her life have changed? Nicola thought about all the events of her own life that her older sister had missed: her graduation, her marriage, the birth of her son. She felt a familiar flash of anger – how could you just disappear like that? – and then remembered that Gemma had contacted her, and only her. Not a word to their parents or brothers. She, Nicola, baby of the family and Gemma’s favourite, had been singled out.
‘Are you ready to order?’
Nicola had barely looked at the greasy menu, but asked for a cup of tea and a cake. As the waitress walked away she instantly regretted that, too; she’d probably choke.
The little bell above the door rang, causing Nicola’s heart to jump. A woman was entering the café, backwards, pulling a baby’s buggy behind her. Was it…? No, she was too short. Why had Gemma chosen this place, in such a strange and hostile part of the city? It seemed to belong to another era. And why on earth was she taking so long to arrive?
The bell rang again, and a coat came through the door. Yes, it was a woman, but she’d pulled the hood around her face . . . Gemma? As two gloved hands reached up to lower the hood, Nicola knew for certain. How could she have thought they might not recognise one another? The two sisters’ eyes met. But Gemma didn’t hurry towards her, or open her arms. She smiled uncomfortably, did a strange sort of wave, and turned to the counter to order.
Nicola could feel her cheeks burning as she picked up the chair. She looked at her phone, pretended to check her messages, pretended nothing had happened, until she could feel Gemma’s shadow standing at the table.
‘So, hi,’ said the voice she hadn’t heard for the last half of her life. Nicola looked up.
‘Hello,’ she said, sounding like someone else. ‘How are you?’
The kind of thing you’d ask the postman, knowing he’d say, Oh, fine thanks, and you? The questions Nicola wanted to ask were: Why did you leave us? Did you ever feel guilty? What have you been doing for 15 years? Where do you live and who is important to you now? Why did you get in touch after all this time? How does it feel to see my face again?
‘I’m fine thanks,’ Gemma said, still not sitting down. ‘You?’
- What a ridiculous question!
- How could she eat at a time like this?
- And now she would discover what had happened all those years ago.
- Her mother must have said something to make her run away.
- Nicola stood up too quickly, knocking over the plastic chair with a crash.
- What if Gemma didn’t turn up?
- The woman saw Nicola staring, and stared back.
You are going to read about four people’s attitudes towards exercise. For questions 43 – 52, choose the correct section. The sections may be chosen more than once.
Working for Myself
We asked four young people how they got their businesses off the ground. Here’s what they had to say…
There was never any question I’d work for someone else. I wanted my fate to be in my own hands – and I wanted to make money! My parents were horrified when I told them I’d turned down a university offer, but I hated the thought of debt and I’d just had my big idea. I overheard this woman in a cafe complaining about the cost of leaving her dog at the kennels while she went on holiday. Apparently it costs hundreds of pounds – I had no idea. So I thought, there must be plenty of people in this city who love dogs, and who’d look after one for a fraction of the price. I set up a site that connected owners and ‘dog-sitters’ and it was a runaway success, though at first it didn’t make me a huge amount. It was later that I figured out how to earn more through advertising and stuff, but the point was just to get started. I’ve learnt so much more doing my own thing than I would’ve in a lecture hall.
In Hollywood movies, kids always run lemonade stands to make extra money. Well, guess what, I tried it for real and you make nothing. The lemons cost me ten pounds, and I only sold about four cups standing in my front garden. In business school they’d say: know your market! I mean, I did this thing in March when people were still in their coats. If I’d waited till July it might have been a different story. Anyway, I’ve always been a bit of a businessman. I studied computing at university but my heart wasn’t in it, so as soon as I graduated I went to the bank and asked for a loan. They had doubts because I was only 21 but they agreed, and I opened a little shop selling kitchen stuff. I’ve always loved food and cooking, even if my lemonade wasn’t exactly a success. Now I’m in full control of the shop’s stock, hours and staff, and I answer to no-one. It’s perfect for me.
Some people are born for business, but I’m not one of them. The idea of self-employment scared me – and my mum and dad too! But they had faith in me and lent me what I needed to get started. I make jewellery and sell it online, and also at a few markets around London. The thing is, I’m not much of a salesperson. Other people seem so confident with the customers; they know the right thing to say to make them get their wallets out. I’m naturally shy – that’s why I studied metalwork in the first place! Ninety percent of the time you’re alone in your studio. I suppose my pieces must speak for themselves, because I’m selling more than I can make. One of my bracelets was featured in a magazine – you know, those free ones that come with the newspaper – and after that I got a lot of orders. I’ve even thought about taking on an assistant, but it seems like a big step.
In this country we have a strange attitude toward death. I remember being at my grandmother’s funeral, dressed all in black and singing these depressing songs, and thinking: she would have hated this. She was a lively woman with this crazy, colourful, welcoming house – and she was always listening to jazz. Why couldn’t her funeral match her life? So my great business idea, at the age of 14, was to help people create unique celebrations of someone’s life. Of course, I waited until I left school at 18 to put the idea into practice. Some customers took one look at me and decided I was too young to organise anything properly, which was understandable but frustrating. Still, as time went on I got more internet presence and a few good reviews. I’m just now starting to pay back money I borrowed in the early days. I never regretted starting my own company, though; I’ve got so much more freedom than my friends.
43. most likely had their business idea around the age of 18?
44. was inspired to start their business by a member of their family?
45. failed at their first business?
46. sometimes finds it hard to talk to people?
47. is considering employing a member of staff?
48. suffered a setback because of their age?
49. does NOT mention an online element of their business?
50. suggests experience is the best teacher for businesspeople?
51. did NOT receive financial support to start their business?
52. designs the items that they sell?