Time: 1 hour 15 minutes
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
- Answer all the questions.
- You can change your answers at any time during the test.
INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
- There are 52 questions in this test.
- Each question in Parts 1, 2, 3 and 7 carries one mark.
- Each question in Part 4 carries up to two marks.
- Each question in Parts 5 and 6 carries two marks.
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For questions 1-8, read the text and choose the correct answer for each gap. Click on a gap and a choice of words will appear. Then choose the correct answer.
- World Heritage Sites
Have you ever visited a World Heritage Site? You might have done so without realising! There are now more than 1,000 sites worldwide that have been listed by UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation. landmarks include the Taj Mahal in India and Great Barrier Reef in Australia but others, such as Kenya’s Fort Jesus, are less to most. To be included on the list, a site should have historical significance and be in some way. In addition, it should be considered to have importance for humanity as a .
Applications for World Heritage Status have increased over the years, as governments observe that UNESCO listing tourists. Sadly, mass tourism can result in an area losing the character that caused it to be listed in the first place. And that is not the only of the system: many people have pointed that Western countries feature too heavily. Half of the sites are located in Europe and North America; Italy alone has more than the whole continent of Africa! If these issues can be ironed out, however, natural and cultural heritage will be saved for generations to come.
Read the text. Think of the word which best fits each gap. Write the correct word in each gap (9 – 16).
- Are Tower Blocks so Bad?
In this country, people love to complain about tower blocks. High-rise apartment blocks are called ugly, and blamed crime and other social problems. A lot of 1960s towers have been knocked although they contained decent homes, and we have a housing crisis! I think it’s a real shame. The buildings may not be to everyone’s taste, cities need a variety of architecture. That’s , two years ago, I decided to buy my first home in a high-rise.
I’ve regretted the decision, not for a moment. To be honest I’m in love the place, especially my view from the 15th floor! The rooms are bigger than in newer homes, and my neighbours are friendly. It’s a stereotype there’s no sense of community in high-rises. A lot of people are artists, me; we need somewhere cheap! And where artists go, others usually follow. When young professionals choose to live in tower blocks too, the public perception will change.
Read the text. For questions 17 – 24, use the word on the right to form a word that fits in the gap. For each question, write your answer in the gap.
Are You Getting Enough? Keyword List It’s hard to feel enthusiasm about a morning run, but don’t keep putting it off. According to a new study, a quarter of all adults risk their health by failing to take enough exercise.
For people aged 19-64, the of ‘enough’ is 150 minutes of moderate activity every week. Children should do more, as should people. Those over 65 are advised to do twice-weekly strength exercises as well as their 150 minutes – a recommendation for anyone who imagined spending their retirement on the sofa!
The study also found that people from Kuwait had the highest levels of , with 67% of adults taking no exercise. Nobody could accuse the Ugandans of , however, as 95% of the population exercised at or beyond expected levels.
Dr Songul Aksoy, a in global exercise trends, warned that nations faced a crisis. ‘We used to work outside and now we sit in front of computers,’ she said. ‘OK, you can’t easily change your job, but you can make better . Cycle to work, or kick a ball around with the kids when you get home – otherwise you’ll become another statistic for people like me!’
For questions 25 – 30, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.
- 25 Would you like to look after the children this afternoon?
Do you fancy the children this afternoon?
26 “Do you think it’s a good idea to visit the museum?”, Simon asked me.
Simon asked me if I the museum.
27 It won’t be possible for Jason to finish before 3pm today.
There’s before 3pm today.
28 I expected the film to be worse than it was.
The film I had expected.
29 Hurry up, the show will be starting in a moment.
Hurry up, the show start.
30 The smoke casued the alarm to start.
The alarm the smoke.
You are going to read an article about roller coasters. For each question 31 – 36, choose the correct answer.
Highest, Fastest, Craziest
You are strapped into a tiny car, pulled up a 50-metre slope, and released at a speed of 100 kilometres per hour. Does this sound like heaven or hell to you? For many people, riding a roller coaster is the last thing they would ever want to do. But for others, it’s a passion that takes them all over the world.
Michael Edgerson, 29, is one of those who travels the globe in search of the highest, fastest and scariest rides. A long-time member of the International Roller Coaster Club, he plans his annual holidays around amusement parks and estimates he has ridden more than 150 different coasters.
‘My mum thought I’d grow out of it,’ he laughs. ‘I first got interested in roller coasters as a teenager, but then all young people love thrill and risk, don’t they? Maybe at nearly 30 I should find a more adult hobby, but I just love everything about coasters: the engineering, the design, the stories that theme parks create around each ride. And I love the travelling.’
Michael has been to the United States every year since he was 21 – the country is known for its innovation in roller coaster design – but to ride each of the record holders, he had to travel further afield. The world’s highest roller coaster, Kingda Ka, is in the US, but for the fastest, Formula Rossa, Michael flew to the UAE and for the longest, Steel Dragon 2000, he visited Japan. To experience the most twists and turns, known in the industry as ‘inversions’, he only had to take a bus for 90 minutes! The Smiler, with an incredible 14 loops in its track, is located in the UK’s Alton Towers theme park.
‘It’s a good one, The Smiler,’ says Michael. ‘But I don’t think it’s the best in Europe. I’m often impressed with German coasters, and Spain has the legendary Dragon Khan. I used to be obsessed with that ride. It’s based on a Chinese story about a dead prince who comes back to life as a dragon. Every time someone tried to ride the dragon it went crazy. How can anyone resist a roller coaster like that?’
People can and do resist, of course, believing roller coasters to be unsafe or at least unpleasant. Accidents, including one on The Smiler in 2015 in which five people were injured, receive a lot of publicity. However, studies have shown that there are just two deaths per year related to theme park rides, compared to 1.3 million road fatalities. Because of the strict regulations, riding a roller coaster is actually one of the safest things you can do.
‘The chance of a roller coaster going wrong these days is very, very low,’ confirms Cinzia Bianchi, an engineer specialising in amusement park rides. ‘The first coasters were built in Russia and they went down hills of ice. Can you imagine that now? No government would allow it. Every time there’s an accident, of course it’s tragic, but it leads to an improvement in standards. There’s little danger in riding a modern coaster.’
If that puts your mind at rest, what are the rides that fans are waiting for right now? Michael Edgerson has a few ideas about where roller coasters are heading in the near future.
‘I’ve been reading about the potential for interactive coasters that are partly controlled by the rider,’ he says, excitedly, ‘but I don’t think there are confirmed plans for any yet. China is the next hotspot because a lot of new theme parks are opening up there, and nearby in Taiwan there’s the Gravity Max. That’s an old ride, but it’s at the top of my personal list – it looks insane! I’ve also heard rumours that the UK is getting another huge new roller coaster in two years’ time. The park isn’t saying much about the specifics so the online forums are going mad with speculation, obviously. We’ll just have to wait and see.’
31. What is suggested about Michael Edgerson in the second paragraph?
32. The tallest roller coaster in the world
33. In paragraph five, Michael says that
34. Which sentence best summarises paragraph six?
35. In paragraph eight, if something puts your mind at rest, it
36. In the final paragraph, which word can replace speculation?
You are going to read the introduction to an autobiography by Edward Collins, a biologist and author. Six sentences have been removed from the article. For questions 37 – 42, choose the correct sentence and move it into the gap. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
I spent a long time considering my specialism. When I told my tutor I wanted to study fungi, she thought I was a bit mad. It’s certainly not as glamorous as marine biology, is it? Rather than scuba diving on exotic islands, I’d be poking around in mud looking at mushrooms! I suppose I felt a bit sorry for them because everyone was more interested in humans or dolphins.
Fungi play an essential role in our ecosystem, but we know so little about them. There are probably 3.8 million kinds of fungi on the planet and we’ve only discovered 10% of them. It excited me to work in a field where there was so much work to do; it still does, to be honest. They’re beautiful things, mushrooms. When you get them under a microscope they have these wonderful, delicate patterns.
The other thing I like about them is that they’re both good guys and bad guys (and fun guys, haha! Biologists love that joke). On the positive side, they taste delicious and have all kinds of medical uses. But on the negative side, so many fungi are poisonous. But I just think fungi have these fascinating personalities. All the best characters in literature are complex, neither good nor bad, and it’s the same in the natural world.
Maybe now I sound like someone who has spent too long in darkened rooms, staring at mushrooms! But to become an expert in any field you have to take pleasure in your work. I think this pleasure is what led to my nickname – the Mushroom Man. It began as a joke among my friends but when I became an author, I thought, why not use it?
My first book, The Mysteries of Mushrooms, is still my most famous, but when I read it now I see how much I didn’t know. I was only in my thirties when I wrote it. I’m proudest of my most recent book, which was a collaboration between 60 scientists, and is a survey of all the world’s fungi. It took us years to write and edit, and of course it can never really be up to date. But it’s the only work of its kind, and it’s a great feeling to have done something that no-one else ever has.
When I’m invited to speak about my books I get asked the same two questions over and over again. The first is why should people care about fungi – they’re kind of disgusting, they’re dangerous, and so on. Well, I understand that not everyone shares my passion for them, but studying mushrooms could be the key to solving climate change. There’s no more pressing environmental issue than global warming so we should take mycology (that’s the proper name for what I do) seriously.
The second question people love to ask is whether I’ve tried magic mushrooms. It’s a naughty question, really! There are 216 types of ‘magic’ mushroom, that’s to say, mushrooms that have drug-like effects. My answer is no, I haven’t tried them because they’re illegal, but it’s one more example of why I’m so attracted to fungi. And it comes from such a tiny little organism.
In this autobiography I’m going to talk a lot about these tiny little organisms, and also about my personal journey from a 16-year-old who failed his science exams to a 66- year-old biologist with a small degree of fame. Thank you for joining me – and I hope I can make you fall in love with mushrooms the way that I did.
- There’s a kind of fungus that’s able to break down plastics in weeks, rather than years.
- It’s memorable, and I think ultimately it helped me to sell a lot of books on an unusual topic.
- But there was something about fungi that captured my attention.
- They help to regulate carbon dioxide levels and they recycle nutrients in the air, too.
- Two thousand new species were discovered in the last 10 months alone.
- What an incredible power: to alter someone’s perception of the world.
- In certain parts of the world they’ve wiped out entire frog populations, which is awful.
You are going to read a blog post about unusual subjects to study. For questions 43 – 52, choose the correct section. The sections may be chosen more than once.
You Studied What?
If you’re having trouble choosing your degree subject, here are four undergraduate qualifications you’ve probably never considered!
The sound of bagpipes is immediately associated with Scotland. But you don’t have to be Scottish to study this instrument – in fact, it might be more convenient if you’re American. The Carnegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania was the first institution to offer a Bachelor’s degree in Bagpipe Performance, thanks to the Scottish heritage of its founders, and is still one of very few to do so. The four-year course is naturally based in the arts department but students are encouraged to work across disciplines. For example, a recent graduate who was also a keen scientist designed a bagpipe-playing robot that went on to perform at the Scottish Parliament! In addition, Carnegie Mellon has a touring ‘pipes and drums’ band in which all undergraduates play. It is made up of both bagpipe players and snare drummers, in the traditional Scottish style.
B. Adventure Education
Yes, that’s a real degree! Students enrolling on a course in Adventure Education learn how to lead outdoor activities such as trekking, canoeing and rock climbing with adults and children. They focus particularly on how engaging with the natural world can be helpful for ‘at risk’ groups, such as those with mental health problems. Plymouth State University, which offers the course, is an ideal location for the programme as it’s surrounded by mountains and lakes; students may find themselves in the great outdoors as often as they’re in a lecture theatre! The unique programme brings together skills from science, geography and psychology, resulting in a diverse group of students. If you want to share your love of nature with others, this could be the course for you.
C. Turfgrass Science
Are you a keen golfer? Have you ever wondered how golf courses look so beautiful, all year round? Ask a turfgrass scientist! On a Turfgrass Science degree course, of which there are a number in the United States, students learn how to plant and maintain grass sports fields (including golf courses). If that sounds simple, it isn’t; factors to consider include climate, soil type, pollution, pest control and many more. And in spite of the name, the course teaches business skills as much as biological ones. Graduates of the programme have a high rate of self-employment, commanding top salaries as consultants for local authorities and private land-owners. After all, this is specialist knowledge that few people acquire – and that never comes cheap.
OK, we’re cheating a little with this one. There’s no degree in Auctioneering but Harrisburg Area Community College offers a six-month diploma in the subject, leading to a professional qualification. The intense course prepares students for work in an auction house, selling items to the highest bidder, by conducting regular practice sales. The college promises to help you develop your own ‘chant’ – the sing-song voice particular to each auctioneer; to understand legal issues surrounding antique items and works of art; and to know where and how to buy objects for auction. As with turfgrass science, auctioneering can be a profitable career and especially at higher levels. In addition to a basic salary of $50,000, auctioneers can expect to receive a percentage of the money made at each sale.
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43. is shorter than the others?
44. is most suitable for those interested in music?
45. teaches students about aspects of law?
46. is offered at a rural campus?
47. has many graduates who work for themselves?
48. is offered by several different institutions?
49. teaches a skill from overseas?
50. is more practical than academic?
51. prepares graduates to work with sensitive groups?
52. is described as more complicated than it seems?